How does the Knee joint work?
Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure in which an arthroscope is inserted into a joint. Arthroscopy is a term that comes from two Greek words, arthro-, meaning joint, and -skopein, meaning to examine.
The benefits of arthroscopy involve smaller incisions, faster healing, a more rapid recovery, and less scarring. Arthroscopic surgical procedures are often performed on an outpatient basis and the patient is able to return home on the same day.
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A total knee replacement (TKR) or total knee arthroplasty is a surgery that resurfaces an arthritic knee joint with an artificial metal or plastic replacement parts called the ‘prostheses’.
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This simply means that only a part of the knee joint is replaced through a smaller incision than would normally be used for a total knee replacement. The knee joint is made up of 3 compartments, the patellofemoral and medial and lateral compartments between the femur and tibia (i.e. the long bones of the leg). Often only one of these compartments wears out, usually the medial one. If you have symptoms and X-ray findings suggestive of this then you may be suitable for this procedure.
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This means that part or all of your previous knee replacement needs to be revised. This operation varies from very minor adjustments to massive operations replacing significant amounts of bone and hence is difficult to describe in full.
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A complete physical examination of the knee is performed when you present to your doctor with a knee complaint. Both of your knees are examined and the results of the injured knee are compared to those of the healthy knee.
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The knee is one of the largest joints in the body, formed by the lower end of the femur, upper end of the tibia and the patella or knee cap. Several ligaments and muscles attach to the bones of the knee joint to maintain normal motion of the joint.
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The knee consists of a fluid called synovial fluid, which reduces friction between the bones of the knee joint while you move your leg. Sometimes this fluid is produced in excess, resulting in its accumulation in the back of your knee.
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Meniscal tears are one of the most frequently reported injuries to the knee joint. The meniscus is a C-shaped fibro cartilaginous structure in the knee incompletely covering the surface of the tibia where it articulates with the femur.
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The knee is one of the most complex and largest joint in the body, and is more susceptible to injury. Meniscal tears are one among the common injuries to the knee joint.
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Arthritis is a general term covering numerous conditions where the joint surface or cartilage wears out. The joint surface is covered by a smooth articular surface that allows pain free movement in the joint.
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Osteonecrosis is a condition in which death of a section of bone occurs because of lack of blood supply to it. It is one of the most common causes of knee pain in older women.
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The knee is a complex joint which consists of bone, cartilage, ligaments and tendons that make joint movements easy and at the same time more susceptible to various kinds of injuries.
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Pharmacological interventions include management of pain using medicinal preparations such as pain relieving capsules or injections.
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Viscosupplementation refers to the injection of a hyaluronan preparation into the joint. Hyaluronan is a natural substance present in the joint fluid that assists in lubrication. It allows smooth movement of the cartilage covered articulating surfaces of the joint.
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Cortisone injections are given directly into, or near to the shoulder joint. It reduces the inflammation within the frozen shoulder joint. Cortisone is a type of corticosteroid released by the adrenal gland in response to stress.
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Physiotherapy is one of the treatment modalities to treat orthopaedic conditions where specially designed exercises and equipments help patients restore their normal physical activities.
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Tibial tubercle osteotomy is a surgical procedure which is performed along with other procedures to treat patellar instability, patellofemoral pain, and osteoarthritis. This is a quite safe procedure and provides excellent access and surgical exposure during a difficult primary or revision total knee arthroplasty.
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Osteoarthritis is a most common form of arthritis which affects the articular cartilage (tissue covering the ends of the bones) of the knee and also other joints such as shoulder, hip, ankle and foot. The articular cartilage cushions the joint so that there is smooth and pain-free movement between the bones in the joint.
Find out more about Arthroscopic Debridement – Knee with the following links.
Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative joint disease is the most common form of arthritis. It occurs most often in older people. This disease affects the tissue covering the ends of bones in a joint (cartilage).
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Meniscus tear is the commonest knee injury in athletes, especially those involved in contact sports. A suddenly bend or twist in your knee cause the meniscus to tear. This is a traumatic meniscus tear. Elderly people are more prone to degenerative meniscal tears as the cartilage wears out and weakens with age.
Find out more about Meniscal Surgery with the following links.
Click on the topics below to find out more from the Orthopaedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.